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What Is Cold Forging, Forging, Hot Forging? What Are The Characteristics?
- Sep 14, 2017 -

The forging process of metal is divided into cold deformation (cold), temperature deformation (forging, semi hot satin) and thermal deformation (hot forging). These different forging process temperatures have different effects on the microstructure and properties of forgings.
(1) Cold forging: When the deformation temperature is lower than the recovery temperature, the metal in the deformation process only hardened without recovery and recrystallization phenomenon, this kind of deformation is called cold forging or cold deformation. For example, forging production of cold forging, cold-rolled, cold extrusion, wire drawing and other parts belong to cold deformation.
The characteristics of cold deformation are: high dimensional precision, good surface roughness, good working conditions and high production efficiency. But in cold deformation, the deformation resistance of metal is large, the plasticity is poor, and the residual internal stress is accumulated. However, the advantages of cold deformation technology make it more and more widely used.
(2) Forging: The deformation temperature is forged between recrystallization and recovery temperature. It has both processing and hardening, but also restore recrystallization softening, but the softening effect is less than the hardening effect, in the metal is always partially retained in the processing hardening characteristics. This kind of forging, called forging, or thermal deformation, half heat forging. such as warm extrusion, half hot forging and so on.
The forging can obtain precision and surface roughness after cold forging. It partially preserves the effect of processing hardening, and it is a means to strengthen the mechanical properties of metal workpieces, and as a remedy to the deficiency of some metal materials. The deformation resistance of cold forging is small, the plasticity is high and the residual stress is small, which is a promising process.
Forging shortcomings: The deformation temperature requires strict control, the need for heating equipment, due to Win Buby hot forging resistance, it requires a large tonnage of forging equipment.
(3) Hot forging: The deformation temperature above the recrystallization temperature, softening and processing hardening coexist in the process of deformation, but the softening can completely overcome the effect of processing hardening, after deformation, the metal has recrystallized equiaxed fine grain microstructure, this deformation is called thermal deformation. For example, forging, die, hot-rolled, Jes, hot extrusion and other processes are hot deformation. This is the most widely used forging process.
Thermal deformation characteristics: Metal high plasticity, deformation resistance is small, can be good forging. Therefore, it can be used to process forgings with large size and complex shape, and can improve the mechanical properties of metal microstructure. However, in the process of heat deformation, the surface of metal is easy to form oxidized skin. Compared with cold deformation, the precision and roughness of the forgings are thicker, the working conditions and the productivity are also poor, and the corresponding heating equipment should be equipped.

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